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Alexandre Yersin
sadfasHome > Da Lat City > Population
Population 

1. The Formation Of Residential Community In Da Lat

Since the establishment, Da Lat has become a well-known center of resort and tourism. With the advantageous natural condition for constructing a new city, the native residents and the group of other regional residents of Viet Nam as well as the European, Chinese, etc. have constructed Da Lat city as it is nowadays.

The Da Lat residential community expands with the process of formation and development of the city. The population of the Da Lat not only varies in accordance with the nature but also increases or decreases in accordance to the changes of the history, politics and administrative structure.

1.1. 1900 - 1914

Dr Alexandre Yersin who visited Lang Biang Plateau on June 21st, 1893 said that: “The land is sparsely populated; some villages of Lach (M’Lates) live at the foot of the mountain. Lach people grew good rice-fields there. They speak both Cham language and Ma language. The women had wide holes in their ears to wear earrings made of heavy spiral things. I was welcomed to the ceremonial house of the village. Every village patriarch brought his jar of alcohol drink. Six jars of alcohol drink were arranged into a long line in front of me. Fortunately, they did not ask me to enjoy all”.

After some results of the investigation, Governor Paul Doumer and his aides established a program to construct the resort of which the center was “Dankia-Suối Vàng” in the mountainous area to the south of Tay Nguyen in Viet Nam. According to this program, Da Lat would become a complete city with the activities of administrative headquarters in the summer and the planning of infrastructures such as traffic way, school, barracks of the army, recreation areas…In 1902, however, Paul Doumer came back to France so his construction of Da Lat was delayed because the fund had been cut. By that time, the residents of Da Lat were still the group of ethnic minorities of Lach, Chil and a small group of Vietnamese who came to live here.

In 1906, Da Lat was chosen to become the resort for French officials and soldiers, but the center was moved to the present Xuan Huong Lake area. At that time, Indochinese governor was Paul Beau who decided to construct an inn for the travelers and it was finished in 1907. Simultaneously, in this year, French transferred the weather station and cultural station from Dankia to DaLat. In this period, Da Lat had not only native residents but also French officials, European travellers. Especially, more Vietnamese began to come here; they were businessmen, prisoners, assistants in the delegation of researchers, etc.

In 1908, Pierre Duclaux, a Frenchman, visited this plateau and described: “Da Lat! There were only 8 or 10 cottages of Vietnamese, one primitive house on the stilts for travelers…And residents? Some exiled Vietnamese, some European business visitors or researchers and escorts…The residents must fight against many wild animals such as tigers everywhere…

Before World War I (1914), the activities of constructing Da Lat had not finished but this was the initial step to form the residential area of Da Lat in the next period.

1.2 1915 - 1939 period

In 1914, World War I broke up and caused difficulties to Europeans to come back to their hometown on annual holidays.

On January 1st, 1916, Lang Bian was founded. On April 20th, 1916, the Committee of Regents of the Hue court officially announced the formation of Da Lat city. With the administrative decisions, Da Lat not only had the opportunities to expand the infrastructures but also create the conditions to increase the population. In 1915, Europeans visited Da Lat. Simultaneously, more Vietnamese also settled down here.

In this period, Da Lat had many important infrastructures which were invested to construct and attracted more Kinh (Vietnamese) people to move to Da Lat city.

The project of DaLat’s planning was implemented by Ernest Hébrard, a French architect from 1921 to 8 - 1923. In addition, he had planned to construct Da Lat to become the capital of Indochina. According to his plan, Da Lat consisted of the offices, military zones, etc. And there were residential areas such as the area of Vietnamese residents in the northwest of city and Vietnamese residential area, widened Vietnamese residential area, planned Vietnamese residential area, area planned to expand, etc. To implement this project, many infrastructures were founded to connect Da Lat - Sai Gon in 1932, clear the road from Dong Nai Thuong to Dac Lac in 1937, complete the system of the station and railway Thap Cham - Da Lat in 1938.

Expanding the roads, constructing the infrastructures of Da Lat created the advantageous conditions for the residents who moved to Da Lat to settle, travel and relax. The population of Da Lat increased remarkably from 1.500 people in 1923 to 5.500 people in 1935, 9.000 people in 1938 and 11.500 people in 1939 (600 French).

1.3 1940 - 1945 period

World War II which broke out on September 1st, 1939 caused problems for French officials and soldiers to come back to their hometown. In Viet Nam, French people were not familiar with the hot weather. Therefore, they often came to Da lat on holiday. Governor Decoux also chose Dalat as the workplace in the summer from the May to October. With the pressure of increased population and other conditions, the project of expanding Dalat was based on the idea of architect Pineau and was implemented by archse residential area, widened Vietnamese residential area, pl plan, Da Lat was expanded toward the south, west and northwest. Meanwhile, the center was still located in the south of HoLon (present Xuan Huong Lake) with the entertainment, the market, schools… Besides, the installations of education, medical service, traffic, electricity… also was continued to expand in this period. The most remarkable thing was the system of old Prenn road which was replaced by the new Prenn road (Khe sanh road, Mimosa nowadays); the Ankroet hydroelectric plant was began to work.

Before 1945, two residential areas such as the south and the north of Cam Ly stream were formed in inner Da Lat. Vietnamese people lived in both of the areas. In the North of Cam Ly stream, the Vietnamese lived in community in the Da Lac village, at the milestone 5( Da Thuan, Hai Bat rung, La Son Phu Tu), at the milestone 6 (Da Thanh),etc. In the South of Cam Ly stream, the Vietnamese lived in community in Tan Lac, Trai Ham, Suoi Cat ( Xuan An) , Nam Thien, etc. Simultaneously, the residential group of Vietnamese who lived alternately in the areas of hospital, station, the department of Geography, Yersin School, Institute of Pasteur, etc.

The Vietnamese lived in community in the south and North of Cam Ly stream, the Chinese lived in Cau Queo area (Phan Dinh Phung Street) and around the market (Hoa Binh nowadays) for the business. Meanwhile, the French lives in the villas in the south of Cam ly stream and in the Bellewe hostel, Decoux. In this period, the population of Da lat increased quickly from 13.000 people in 1940 to 20.000 people in 1942, from 21.000 people in 1943 to 25.500 people in 1944.

1.4 1945 - 1954 period

The political event which continuously occurred in 1945 and 1946 caused several fundamental changes in Indochina.

When Japan fascists staged a coup d’etat to the French colonialist (on March 3rd night, 1945), in Da Lat, Japan occupied many places and dug many shatters and trenches in the important locations, stored the foods and made hectic recruitments of soldiers. In this period, 600 French officials and denizens were arrested in Decoux and Bellevue hostel and panicked the residents of Da Lat.

After the Japanese coup d’etat, the cabinet of Tran Trong Kim was founded on April 17th, 1945; Da Lat was controlled by Vietnamese. The August Revolution succeeded, Bao Dai abdicated in Hue on August 30th,1945. And on August 25th, 1945, in Da Lat, the people’s committee of Lam Vien province was founded. However, the French occupied Sai Gon and Da Lat fell into the French control again.

Effectuating a policy of the committee of resistance of Lam Vien province, some people of Da Lat who had fled to Cau Dat, Don Duong, Ninh Thuan, Binh Thuan came back hometown to do business. The population of Da Lat then only had about 5.200people. The French said that Da Lat city was “the deserted city”.

When returning to occupy Da Lat, the French colonists tried to normalize the political-social activities. The apparatus of government was reorganized in DaLat, the City’s mayor was changed into the municipal administration with the establishment of councils of village seniors in many districts. The government of Da Lat, on the one hand, suppressed the people suspected of joining the revolutionary activities; on the other hand, appealed to the local evacuees to return to DaLat.

From 1946, the fighting situation of Da Lat and the mountainous areas did not permit the French and Vietnamese to travel as freely as before.

From 1947 to 1949, when traffic was back to normal, the population of Da Lat was getting stable, people from other places also returned to Da Lat. However, this event was not prolonged by the compromise between Bao Dai and French government in Paris about Da Lat and Tay Nguyen. According to this compromise, the French recognized Vietnam as an independent and united country. But in fact, according to the negotiation between Bao Dai and Bollaert, the French advised the Court of Hue to separate Tay Nguyen to become a separate administrative unit. In addition, on April 14th, 1950, Bao Dai passed the sixth law - QT/TD to form “King’s Territory” and recognized Da Lat as the center. Then, on November 10th, 1950, Bao Dai continued passed the fourth law - QT/TD with the content of amending the administrative border of Da Lat and merged a part of Lam Vien province into Dong Nai Thuong province. Therefore, the Kinh could not settle freely in Da Lat as before. However, after some years, from the end of 1953 to the beginning of 1954, the war against the French entered a fierce period so the population of neighboring provinces converged on Da Lat to take a refuge.

The population of Da Lat city had many changes in this period. The population was 18.513 people in March in 1948. At the end of 1952, Da Lat had 25.041 people consisting of 1.217 Europeans (not including soldiers), 752 Chinese, 22.232 Vietnamese, 840 minor ethnic natives.

1.5 1954 - 1975 Period

On July 20th, 1954, Geneve Agreement was signed. French left Indochina and Vietnam was temporarily divided into North and South. On March 11st, 1955, Ngo Dinh Diem passed the twenty first law to dissolve “King’sTerritory” and merged Da Lat into the Trung Phan Plateau and was controlled by the delegate of the Trung Phan Plateau. And the people could be free to reside in Da Lat. Because Dalat was still considered an important strategic area in the South of High land, Saigon government urgently set up the administrative system which was quite complete. In this system, the head was the Mayor with the apparatus of the Internal Security and Military Affairs, Administration, Finance, Economics, Sanitation, Training Center and Refresher Course, Office, etc. Besides, there were urban advisory councils including the people with economic status and power (the contractors, traders). As regards the administrative system, Da Lat was divided into 10 quarters, Lien Hiep communes and Thai Phien hamlets. Each quarter consisted of several hamlets; each hamlet had a head to control the system of families from 10 to 30 households under the supervision of the head of families concerning all aspects of administration and public order.

Therefore, from to 1954 to 1956, DaLat's population increased from 25.000 people to 58.958 people. Especially, in this period, a part of important population of Dalat was the migrants from the North basing on the emigrant policy of the Southern government and the migrants of Central area coming here to do business.

On May 19th, 1958, Ngo Dinh Diem promulgated the decree 261/NV to form Tuyen Duc province and cut a part of Dalat to merge into Tuyen Duc province. Therefore, Da Lat's population decreased to 43.000 people.

In 1960s, Da Lat's population increased steadily from 73.000 people in 1965 to 89.656 people in 1970. From 1970 onwards, the fighting situation was becoming fierce so the residents of Da Lat also had remarkable changes, and in 1975, the population of Da Lat was only 85.833 people.

1.6 The period from 1975 to now

On April 3th, 1975, Da Lat was liberated. A new page of the city of Lang Bian Plateau was opened.

On the first days of liberation, Da Lat's population reduced a little because the people served in the military and the administrative apparatus of the old regime and the people came back to their hometown; a part of the population of Da Lat built a new economic area in other locations in Lam Dong province. However, soon the population of Da Lat was strengthened by the staff mobilized from the North and the Centre, along with the stabilization of rural residents and expansion of the border of Dalat to Thai Phien (1975), Xuan Truong, Xuan Tho (1979), and especially combination of Ta Nung commune into Da Lat.

Since 1975, the administrative border of Da Lat city has been expanded, many offices, units have been established, and the economy and society have developed so there has been a remarkable increase in population. In 1981, the population of Dalat increased to 98.437 people. In 1982, Da Lat increased to more than 100.000 people. In 1990, the population was 120.261 people. According to the statistics on April 1st, 1999, the population of Da Lat was 160.663 people and was 197.013 people in 2007.

Table - changes of population in Dalat city

2. The component and distribution of Population in Dalat.

Dalat city was founded in the last years of XIX century. The origin of Dalat’s population was plenty and variety. Therefore, the composition of Dalat’s residents had its own characteristic that was not like other cities in Vietnam. The unique characteristic was that the population groups of Vietnamese, Europeans, Chinese and ethnic minorities from the North, for historical reasons, have lived together with native ethnic groups, and they all have settled into a united community.

2.1 Native ethnic groups

Native people of Dalat were Coho ethnicity, including three major groups: Lach, Chil and Sre.

2.1.1 Lach people

Lach people (also known as Lac, Lat or M’Lates) was the name of a group of Coho residents who settled on the Lang Biang Plateau for a long time. In Coho language, “Lach” refers to areas of pine forests and bare hills that stretches from Lang Biang Plateau Mountains to the southwest, including today’s Da Lat city. The original relationship between Lach people and Chil people is that they have many similarities in language, family, customs. The major area where Lach resided is Dalat city and Lat commune of today's Lac Duong district. Although the area is large, the population is small. Therefore, Lach people live and cultivate in small villages. Each village only has about ten houses.

Although the settlement is quite stable on the land of the village, over the history, Lach people have moved their village to different areas for many different reasons. In many kinds of Lach’s economy, wet rice cultivation was the most important. Their fields were in the valleys or by the side of streams. They completely depended on the weather, so the residents just cultivated a crop per year.

Afterwards, the fields of Lach people have been moved up and become terraced fields. To complement the farming economy, Lach raise horses, buffaloes, goats, pigs, chickens, ducks, etc. and cows later. Their major residence today is Lac Duonho residents who settled on the Lang Biang Plateau for a lonks to the contacts with the developed cultures especially the former Western civilization and the civilization of Vietnamese, Lach people gave up many bad customs and became more open-minded in the acceptance of new cultures.

2.1.2 Chil people

The major residence areas of Chil people are in the North, South and Northeast of Lang Biang Mountain stretching to the Southern of Dak Lak province, from the Da Nhim River to the Krong No River. In the early twentieth century, a group of Chil people moved to Ta Nung from the lands of Dam Rong in the nomadic way. When the French established Canh-ki-na plantations, some Chil people went to work in these plantations. By 1965, another group of Chil people moved to the present Dinh Van area for settling, another group continued to live in Ta Nung because of their marriage with the Sre.

The traditional organization of social management of Chil people is Bon or hamlet (Bon is like the highland village or Plei of other ethnic minorities in High Land as well as the village of Viet people). Each Bon or hamlet of the Chil often has some long houses. Each long house is of a large family which has the same line of ancestry. Chil's hamlets are usually near rivers, streams, lakes and in valleys. In the past, moving hamlets always took place periodically (every 10 to 15 years, but Chil people often retain the name of their old village as they move to a new place). Nowadays, the nomadic way of life generally no longer exists. At the same time, the long house with many wood-stoves in which an extended family of many generations live is now gradually disappearing.

2.1.3 Sre people

The Sre call themselves Cau Sre, meaning “farmers”. According to many anthropologists, Sre group is the most populous in all Coho's groups. Their lifestyle is sedentary, rotating on plots of a particular area. Sre is an ethnic minority who know techniques of cultivating rice quite early along with the ability to cultivate the fields on mountain that is more progressive than other native ethnic minorities. Therefore, their life has been stable and likely to develop. In Dalat, most of the Sre people settle in Ta Nung commune.

Ta Nung commune is 17km from the center of Dalat city to the south-west, with the altitude of above 800 m. This is the land of hollow terrain among the hills. Ta Nung’s land area is 45.4998 sq.km including 802.58 ha of agricultural land, 2386.83 ha of forestry land, 125.35 ha of specialized land; 34.81 ha of dwelling land. According to statistics on April 1st, 1999, Ta Nung had 3,245 inhabitants; women accounted for 1,621 people; ethnic minorities were 327 households with 1,796 people.

Originally, Ta Nung was the land of the Sre, called Tornun On (Teurnoun) - a commune with close kinship of the only Dacat family (Da Chat). Later on, many other families from other places came to settle. That thing made residential communities become diverse especially in the early twentieth century, a group of Chil people from Dam Rong moved to Ta Nung by nomadic way. In the early 1950s, a group of other Chil people from Lac Duong region also moved towards the southwest to here and settled on the hills of the Ta Nung's Northwest. In 1965, in Tornun, a fire burned most people's houses down. So a part of the Sre and Chil moved out to Cam Ly area.

Later in 1975, Ta Nung became the sedentary planning area of ethnic minorities. The former ethnic groups in Ta Nung were moved and settled in the sedentary way of life. Simultaneously, a group of Chil people in Dung kno, Da Chais, Da Long (Lac Duong district) was also transferred to Ta Nung according to the sedentary policy. Besides, over the two years 1978-1979, as planning, a group of Lach people in Mang Lin (ward 7) was moved to Ta Nung. From the 1980s, a community of Viet people also migated to Ta Nung in the new economic policy.

Nowadays, most residents of Ta Nung live on agriculture, growing rice, corn, mulberry, coffee, tea, etc.

2.2 Chinese-Vietnamese

In the early twentieth century, Chinese merchants began coming to Dalat. The unique means that Chinese traders took to get to Dalat at that time was the Indochina railway going through Thap Cham (Ninh Thuan). From Thap Cham, in many ways, Chinese brought goods to trade with residents of Lang Biang Plateau. The presence of Chinese people in Dalat, at first was merely for trading and changing goods. Gradually, a part of them had settled down in Da Lat. By 1935, the number of Chinese settler in Dalat was 333 people. They worked as traders (52.6%), workers (17%), home-helps (25%) and gardeners (5.4%).

By 1952, there were 752 Chinese people living in Dalat. During 50 years, with the rises and falls of Vietnam's history as well as fluctuations of Dalat’s economy and society, Chinese people came to Lang Biang Plateau, gradually integrated into the Viet community, acquired Vietnamese nationality, and contributed to the construction of Dalat city.

According to statistics on April 1st, 1999, the number of Chinese people in Dalat was 1,812 people. They originated from such Chinese provinces as Guangdong, Hainan, Fujian, Chaozhou, Shandong. Chinese people in Dalat mostly lived in Ward 1, Ward 2 and Xuan Truong commune; some scatter in other wards. The main occupations of Chinese people in Dalat were trade, service and handicraft occupations.

2.3 French people in Dalat

After the exploration footsteps of the French doctor A. Yersin, the first Frenchmen setting foot on Lang Biang Plateau were members of land-survey team and their entourage. Among them, notably were the delegations of Beylié (1903), Bennequin (1904), Grall (1904), Bizar (1905), Garnier (1906), Cunhac (1907), etc. In 1907, the Hotel du Lac (Ho hotel) was the first hotel that was built on Da Lat land - this was “the inn" (the hotel was only made by simple wood) intended primarily for French holidays in Dalat. Among the first French people moving to the Lang Bian Plateau Plateau was Missigbrott - a French soldier in the land survey delegation stayed in Dankia to turn this area into the gardens. He started growing cabbages and raising animals to supply the delegation with food. This laid the foundation for the Dankia farm of French people then.

Parallel with the expanded program of the government, and apart from French businessmen, officials, civil servants, soldiers serving in government offices and schools, there was a group of French on Lang Biang Plateau who came to clear land and to establish farms, plantations, etc. Among them, there were establishments which were recalled by many locals as Dankia Farm, Cau Dat Tea Factory, Cam Ly Plantation, the other farms in Tan Lac , Suoi Tia, Trai Ham, etc. Particularly, also in this period, the expansion of Dalat in many aspects also made many French people move to this place to build restaurants, hotels for business purposes.

From 1935, the amount of French people in Dalat was 470 people. This number gradually increased in 1940 to 750 people, in 1944 to 1.130, and in 1952 to the highest-ever 1.217 people. However, by 1955 because of war, the number of French people remaining in Dalat was only 608 people.

2.4 Kinh people in Da Lat

2.4.1 The first villages and hamlets

Da Lac village

Da Lac village which is located on the right bank of the Cam Ly stream had a Market Square (Place du Mar ché) and the roads such as Annam, Van Vollenhoven, Foch, Gia Long, Dong Khanh and Khai Dinh, Minh Mang, Cau Queo, Lo Gach, etc. (now the Hoa Binh area and the roads: Nguyen Van Troi, Phan Boi Chau, February 3, Le Dai Hanh, Nguyen Chi Thanh, Nguyen Van Cu, Truong Cong Dinh, Phan Dinh Phung, Hoang Dieu, etc.).

People do not know the time of forming Da Lac village. They only know that its temple was built in 1920; there was still a horizontal lacquered picture which was inscribed with three words "Da Lac Temple"

In the article “Le Langbian” of the Revue Indochinese, No. 53-54, published in Hanoi in 1907, Dr. JJVassal said that there were 18 wells and 365 cottages in the area of Kinh people in Da Lat; 24/47 students who had a trachoma.

Da Lac village had many slopes. There was a slope which was known as the Nha Lang slope (Nguyen Bieu street nowadays) leading to Nha Lang (Village House) - the meeting place of people in the village.

Most of the residents originating from Central Vietnam lived on doing business, building houses, sawing wood, growing vegetables, making bricks, working in offices, restaurants and hotels of the French.

At first, Kinh people concentrated in Da Lac village. Later, they gradually developed in the northern areas and the hamlets in the south of the Cam Ly stream. Currently, Da Lac village belonged to a part of Ward 1, Ward 2 and Ward 5.

Tan Lac hamlet and Xuan An hamlet

These hamlets located on the left bank of the Cam Ly stream were formed after the foundation of Da Lac village.

Tan Lac hamlet was founded in 1920. Tan Lac temple was built at the foot of the hills where the Department of Education and Training of Lam Dong province is located today. After being moved twice, the temple was rebuilt in the new location which is near the tourist area of Cable Cars. The residents of Tan Lac hamlet and Xuan An hamlet lived on the banks of streams. Later, they dug wells and dammed up, and developed toward the mountainous sides.

At this time, the job of Kinh people in these hamlets was trading, gardening, building, working in hotels, restaurants, shopping mall Poinsard et Veyret ( Le Café de la Poste nowadays), Grillet and Farraut farm.

Da Loi hamlet

At first, Da Loi hamlet had the tent of Mr Ham with some people who exploited the stone. Therefore, it was called Trai Ham hamlet (Ham’s Tent hamlet).

There were 3 farms of French people: a farm to the north of the hamlet (Hoang Hoa Tham Street) raising milk cows, another farm to the south of the hamlet growing the persimmon and another farm growing the plum at the foot of the Prenn Mountain. Kinh people moved to Da Loi hamlet to work in these hamlets.

In 1930, the residential area near the railway was cleared up, Mr Huynh Chuan and some people asked land for their resettlement. DaLat’s government allowed these groups to settle in Da Loi hamlet.

/span>Cable Cars. The residents of Tan Lac hamlet and Xuan A6pt">Da Loi hamlet is famous for the plum (the plum of Trai Ham) and the persimmon. At present, this area lives on gardening, but it also attracts people who move to live in the new apartments and the villas.

Da Phu village

In the early twentieth century, some Kinh people from North Vietnam, Thua Thien and Quang Nam lived in Da Phu village at the milestone13 of Dankia (Lac Duong district today). The locals lived on gardening, trading with Lach people and working in the French farms growing vegetables and raising cows.

In 1944, Dankia Lake was built to provide the water for the Ankroet hydroelectric plant. The level of water rose and flooded Da Phu village; 25 households had to move to the milestone 7 which was near the Ankroet and built Da Phu village with the total area of 100ha.

In 1947, Tay Thuan hamlet and Trung An hamlet were founded. In 1953, after the construction the monastery of the Savior, some workers did not return to their hometowns and stayed to form Dong Hoa hamlet. In 1954, some people from the North emigrated to Da Lat. They lived in Tay Thuan Hamlet which was called the group of families of 3 former soldiers.

Currently, Tay Thuan hamlet, Trung An and Dong Hoa belong to the Quarter 7, Ward 7, Da lat city.

Truong Xuan village

In 1922, Cau Dat Tea Factory was founded. At the end of 1927, Mr. Nguyen Dinh Sung with 10 other people (Truong Tien Duc, Nguyen Luc Trach, Hoang Tri, Huynh Than, To The Loc, Luu Trong Nhon, Vo Hoa, Kieu But, Ho Thong and Tran Manh Trung) asked for permission to form Truong Xuan village and this village was officially recognized on April 23rd, 1929.

At first, Truong Xuan village only had 3.5 ha; then it was expanded to 30 ha of Quang Thang area to form Dat Lang. Also in 1927, five others (Nguyen Khoa Dai, Tran Vinh, Luong Tung, Do Hoac and Nguyen Khoa Hy) also asked for forming Tram Hanh Village. Xuan Son village was built by Mr. Nguyen Danh, Nguyen Xin, Bui Van Phap, Phung Lien, etc and recognized in 1946.

2.4.2 Kinh people originating from the northern and north-central provinces

Kinh people who originated from the northern and north-central provinces were an important part in the community of Da Lat’s population. The French discovery of Lam Vien Plateau with their plan of building the city of tourism and resort encouraged the wave of migration from other places to this area for many different purposes, including group of people from the northern and north-central provinces.

Nghe An people, Ha Tinh people moved to Da Lat in 1928 to be workers, employees, businessmen, etc. Then, from the early 1930s, under the guidance of Mr Nguyen Thai Hien, vegetable gardens were established at Tan Lac hamlet, Xuan An along Phan Dinh Phung stream, Trai Mat (1934), Dat Lang (1937), etc.

From 1938, many new residential areas were formed: Ha Dong hamlet (1938), Nghe Tinh hamlet (1940), Da Thien Hamlet (1953), etc. After the Geneva Agreement (20-7-1954), with the policy of immigration of Ngo Dinh Diem government, a part of the Vietnamese and some ethnic minorities of the North had the chance to enter the Lam Dong in general as well as Da Lat in particular. After reunification of the country, the population of Da Lat changed again, including migrations of people from northern and north-central provinces. Especially, the northern governmental staffs that were relocated to Da Lat brought along their family and relatives. Similarly, people in the army force, police, universities, vocational schools and people who moved from the Northern and North-Central provinces to build the new economy contributed to the increase in population of Da Lat. In general, though this variety of residents settled in Dalat with many different purposes, they integrated into the community of natives and Vietnamese from the other areas of Viet Nam. Ha Dong hamlet, Nghe Tinh hamlet, Da Thien hamlet were "the embodiment" of the villages of northern and north-central provinces on Lang Bian Plateau from its foundation to now.

Ha Dong Hamlet

Dalat was a broad land with sparse population and cool climate and was very convenient for growing vegetables and flowers. Therefore, in 1936, Mr. Tran Van Ly, the Chief of province, discussed with Mr. Hoang Trong Phu, Le Van Dinh and some influential officials to intervene with the Government to implement an migration from the North to Da Lat. With the consent of the Government, the first inhabitant group of Ha Dong hamlet including 33 people from the village of Ngoc Ha, Quang Ba, Nghi Tam, Xuan Tao, Tay Tuu and Van Phuc in Ha Dong province came to Da Lat. When these people moved to Da Lat, they gathered around a small stream and cultivated the land to use for the purpose of growing vegetables. In the late 1930s, the cultivation of vegetables in Dalat was rather thriving. The prosperity of growing vegetables caused a serious shortage of labour . From 1939 to 1942, so many garden owners in Ha Dong hamlet came back to the North to recruit labours from the provinces of Nam Dinh, Hai Duong, Hung Yen, Bac Ninh ... to work in Dalat. Ha Dong hamlet was officially founded in 1938. Since 1954, Ha Dong hamlet not only had Northern people but also Central people moving to settle and work for the garden owners. However, in Ha Dong hamlet, most of the population were Northern people.

Nghe Tinh Hamlet

Because of using land to build the Adran school, some gardens of Tan Lac hamlet was cleared. Many households did not have land for production and construction. Therefore, they had an idea of asking for land. Simultaneously, they also asked for their relatives from Nghe Tinh to live in Da Lat to garden.

Mr. Nguyen Thai Hien and Mr. Nghiem Trang with some people in the Hoan Chau Ai Huu Association made an application for asking to establish the hamlet. With the support and the help of Mr. Pham Khac Hoe - the Chief of Da Lat province, Nghe Tinh hamlet was officially founded in 1940.

At that time, Nghe Tinh hamlets had about 36ha of lands for 70 households, the people of this hamlet lived by working for the office of government and reclaiming to garden. In Nghe Tinh hamlets, farmers grew temperate vegetables and the artichoke in a determined area. Since 1954, Nghe Tinh hamlets received a new inhabitant section who originated from Nam - Ngai - Binh - Phu.

Da Thien Hamlet

In comparision with two hamlets of Ha Dong and Nghe Tinh, Da Thien hamlet was established later - in 1953 - but the area was relatively larger (500 ha). Since Da Thien hamlet was established, it had both the North people and the Central people. From the beginning, an inhabitant section of the North in Da Thien hamlet was 55 people of Ha Dong hamlet, Nghe Tinh moving here to cultivate land. Besides, there were the former staffs in the Administrative Committee of Quarter IX. Later, Da Thien hamlet had a different section of the Northern inhabitants, originating from Duc Ninh in Thai Binh province. They gathered to live with the inhabitant group of the North who had migrated earlier.

The other hamlets

In November, 1954, about 40 Catholic households of the Northern people in Ha Dong, Bac Ninh, Ha Noi, Ha Nam, Nam Dinh, Ninh Binh, etc had the relationship with Priest Buu Duong. They migrated to Da Lat and gathered to set up the settlement camp of Du Sinh. In 1960, Du Sinh became the major name of a hamlet in Da Lat. From the end of March to the early April, 1955, under the guidance of Priest Manh Bich Trong, about 400 parishioners of Nghi Yen village, Cau Khong on Duc Tho district (Ha Tinh) moved to Da Lat and formed the settlement area of Thanh Mau, then cultivating land to establish Thanh Mau hamlet. At the same time, about 3,000 parishioners who originated from Hai Phong, Nam Dinh, Hanoi, Thai Binh and Bac Ninh were moved to Dalat by Priest Do Ngoc Bich to set up the settlement camp of Da Minh. In 1957, the area of settlement was dispersed, about 2,000 people moved to Dong Nai and there were still 1,000 people in Nam Thien. In 1957, Priest Mai Duc Thac and about 600 parishioners in Phat Diem area moved to Da Lat to settle in Phat Chi.

Besides, the Northern groups moved to Dalat and lived in the hamlets which had been established earlier such as Tung Lam hamlet.

In 1949, some Kinh families from Hue came to Laos and then returned to Vietnam to form the hamlet at the milestone 7 on the Da Lat street – Lac Duong. In 1954, the Northern people emigrated to the hamlet, most of them who were the residents of the Thach Bich village (Ha Dong - Ha Noi) were moved to the two camps such as Tung Lam and Kim Thach by the priests. They lived by working for Hue people who had moved to here earlier. Gradually, they cleared up the land and gardened, grew onions, potatoes, etc.

2.4.3 The Kinh people originated from Thua Thien - Hue

At first, the Kinh people originating from Thua Thien – Hue moved to Da Lat according to the small programs in 1920. This was quite different from the group of northern populations to Da Lat at the same period. The residents of Thua Thien - Hue who moved to Da Lat were young people and workers in the plantations. They moved to here on feet for about 1 month and had many difficulties along the trip and in a new land. Thua Thien – Hue people left their hometown and moved to Da Lat to do business. They wanted to keep away from the devastation of the war, to escape the policy of heavy tax of the contemporary regime and to find a new land with the advantageous conditions.

Besides, a part of Thua Thien – Hue people moved to Dalat to work for the French owner. After finishing the job, they did not want to come back to the hometown, and they stayed here to live.

Residential communities from Thua Thien – Hue lived in the Anh Sang, Da Thuan, Da Thanh, Thai Phien hamlets, Hoa Binh area and in the districts, communes of Da Lat city.

As far as the people who originated from Thua Thien – Hue lived in Da Lat were concerned, the fellowship factor played an important role in gathering to form the administrative unit such as Anh Sang hamlet.

Anh Sang Hamlet was the first gathering area of Thua Thien - Hue people in Da Lat. Anh Sang hamlet is located near the center of DaLat city. In the past, it consisted of small gardens on the high land. Later on, it was cultivated to grow vegetables. In 1946, Da Lat people evacuated, so Anh Sang hamlet had only some families. From 1947, Hue people moved to here. In 1952, Anh Sang hamlet had 36 families. Anh Sang hamlet was founded in 1952 under the help of Da Lat city’s Mayor Cao Minh Hieu. By the 1960s, the complex situation of politics in the urban area of the South and especially the Mau Than war and the fierce Tri - Thien fighting area, many families left Hue city to move to Da Lat city to do business. Anh Sang hamlet was one of the areas which they came to. Nowadays, Anh Sang hamlet had many people who originated from Thua Thien – Hue. They still keep their own values of Hue ancient culture.

2.4.4 The people who originated from Nam – Ngai – Binh – Phu

The people who originated from Nam – Ngai – Binh – Phu (Quang Nam, Quang Ngai, Binh Dinh, Phu Yen) were an important part in the community of Dalat’s residents.

Nam – Ngai – Binh – Phu people strated to live in Da Lat early. They were the builders who constructed the highways 1, 20, 27 and the railway of Thap Cham – Da Lat.

When Cau Dat Tea Factory was founded, the system of the roads was also expanded. At this time, the French needed workers who worked not only in the office but also in the lines of communication. The source of workers originated from Nam – Ngai – Binh – Phu. In 1929, they formed Truong Xuan village (Xuan Truong nowadays), one of the first Vietnamese villages of Dalat. Nam – Ngai – Binh – Phu people not only lived in Truong Xuan but also in the other areas such as Tan Lac, Xuan An, Trai Ham, Trai Mat, Nam Ho, Thai Phien, Xuan Tho, etc.

Xuan Truong commune

Xuan Truong commune located in the southeast of Dalat city was 22km from Dalat city. This area had the height of 1600m above the sea-level. The total area was 32km2. The land in this area was suitable for growing vegetables, flowers and kinds of fruit. Xuan Truong commune which was the gateway to Dalat city in the east is located at the former milestone 11 and at the present milestone 20.

In July1955, Phat Chi hamlet in this area was also founded with more than 600 Catholic people who emigrated from the north. Before 1975, according to Decree 592–BVN/HC/P7/NĐ, Sai Gon government formed Xuan Truong commune which consisted of 5 villages such as Truong Xuan, Tram Hanh, Xuan Son, Truong Son and Phat Chi with more than 3000 people. Xuan Truong commune belonged to Lac Xuan, Don Duong district. From 1979 to now, Xuan Truong commune belongs to Dalat city.

In general, from the foundation of villages and merger into the commune, the population of Xuan Truong commune increased remarkably in many ways. In 1933, many unemployed people from many places moved to Xuan Truong to work on plantations or grow vegetables and flowers due to the influence of the economic crisis. After 1945, some officials, Communist party members and citizens of the central provinces who were terrorized by the enemy moved to Xuan Truong, Dalat to live and work. Therefore, the population increased to 4.000 people. According to the census on April 2nd, 1967 of Sai Gon government, the population of Xuan Truong commune was 5,556 people. From 1975, the population of Xuan Truong commune increased rapidly. According to the census on April 1st, 1999, there were 9,392 people including 520 of ethnic minorities.

Xuan Tho Commune

Xuan Tho commune was located in the east of Da Lat, about 10km from the center of the city on Highway 20. The total area of Xuan Tho commune was 43.32 km2, was the forestry land of special-use forests of Da Lat.

Xuan Tho commune was between Xuan Truong commune and the center of Da Lat city but in 1946, Kinh people from the Central moved to here to live and do business.

According to statistics, before 1945, XuanTho’s population only had 200 people. From 1963 to 1967, the war in Central Vietnam became fierce, so many households from Nam - Ngai - Binh - Phu moved to XuanTho to live and join in the revolutionary activities. In1968, some households of Hue left their hometown and came here. After 1975, XuanTho’s population increased in the planned as well free migration waves.

In the war against France, Xuan Tho commune belonged to Chien Thang District, Lam Vien province. From 1954 to1975, Xuan Tho was a commune of Lac Duong District, Tuyen Duc province. From 1975 to 1979, Xuan Tho commune belonged to Don Duong District, Lam Dong province. From 1979 to now, Xuan Tho commune belongs to Da Lat.

XuanTho Commune was formed late (according to the decree 261/NV on May 15th, 1958 of the Saigon government). XuanTho’s population was only 200 people before 1945 but it increased rapidly in 1963, 1965 and 1968. The whole commune had 1,115 households with 5,250 people, and men accounted for 2,613 people.

Ward 11 (Nam Ho – Tu Phuoc)

Ward 11 (Nam Ho – Tu Phuoc) was 5km from the center of Da Lat city to the southeast. The natural area was 16.56 km2 with 601ha of agricultural land.

In 1928, Trai Mat - Da Lat had Kinh people. They grew vegetables, flowers and worked in French farms. In this year, Ngo Thien, a Kinh person from Thua Thien Hue, moved to settle in Da Lat. In 1938, he moved to Trai Mat, he bought the land of Mr Xa Tien and settled here. Mr Thien was one of the five people who founded Linh Phuoc Pagoda in 1940 and Da Phuoc temple in 1942 in Trai Mat. Then, from1943 to 1944, Tay Ho also had about 5 to 10 households of Kinh people . In 1945, Ward 11 had about 100 people who lived along Highway 11.

From 1950 to 1952, Sao Nam hamlet was founded in this area. Simultaneously, the temple was also allowed to construct; one of the first people who founded Sao Nam temple was Mr. Nguyen Sy Vinh.

By 1953, 40 households moved from Laos to settle temporarily in Sao Nam and later (1955) transferred toThai Phien area. After 1954, terrorized by the enemy in the central provinces, many households moved to central Da Lat in general and South Lake - Tu Duc in particular to make a living. The population of Ward 11 at the time (including Sao Nam, Tay Ho, Da Phuoc, Tu Tao) increased to about 1,000 people. Before 1975, the population of Ward 11 was 3,000 people and is now over 6,000people.

Most residents in Ward 11 are natives of Nghe An, Quang Nam, Quang Ngai, Binh Dinh and Phu Yen. These populations from Central Vietnam came here for many reasons but mainly because of the fierce war.

Ward 12 (Thai Phien)

Ward 12 (Thai Phien) was in the northeastern of Da Lat, 7km from the center of the city; the total area was 13.35km2 with 500ha of agricultural land.

Before 1945, Thai Phien was a dense forest for hunting and camping of French people and Bao Dai Emperor. In the war against France, this forest was the area of activity of the revolutionary soldiers. In March 1955, Ngo Dinh Diem promulgated the twenty first Law to abrogate the Dynasty’s territory and expand the rights of using the land. Therefore, Thai Phien was formed in this period. In 1953, 40 households of Kinh people who lived in Laos came back to the hometown. They began to settle in Sao Nam (Ward 11) and then they settled in Thai Phien hamlet. Le Phuong Mieng, Le Xuan Sinh and Tran Quang Liem together with Ngo Thanh, Nguyen Xuan Lam, Nguyen Binh and Teacher Hap made an application to the government for founding Thai Phien hamlet. At this time, the mayor of Da Lat was Mr. Cao Minh Hieu who agreed to found it. Initially, 40 households who lived at the foot of Bo Hon Mountain on growing vegetables and flowers. In1956, Anh Sang hamlet was cleared up to construct the market. Therefore, 20 households of this hamlet and some households from Cau Dat moved to Thai Phien to do business. From 1956 – 1957, some households from the zones of Quang Nam, Quang Ngai and Hue had to move to Da Lat and come to Thai Phien to live because of the terrorist attack of Ngo Dinh Diem government in Central Vietnam. In 1960, the residents of Thai Phien had 400 people. From 1963 to 1966, the war in Central Vietnam became fierce. Therefore, the wave of migration from the Central to Da Lat was more and more increasing, especially after the Mau Than Tet in 1968 and lasting to 1975. After 1975, some households in the Central migrated to Thai Phien to find their relatives and settle here.

The names of Thai Phien according to the different periods: from 1955 – 1958, it was called as Thai Phien of Da Loi IV quarter. On May 19th, 1958, the Saigon government issued the decree 261 – NV to found Tuyen Duc province, Phuoc Thai commune belonging to Phuoc Tho province, Lac Duong district until the liberation. From May 1975 to August 1976, its name was Ward 8. From August 1976 to 1977, it was called Thai Phien hamlet of III quarter, Da Lat city. From 1977 to 1988, it was Thai Phien hamlet of Ward 6. From 1998 to now, its name is Ward 12.

Ward 12 of Da Lat city consists of the residents from the different areas, especially the residents of central provinces. According to the statistics on April 1st, 1999, the population of Ward 12 included of 5,693 people (1,563 households) and men accounted for 2,860 people. The population of Ward 12 consisted of Quang people (40%), Thua Thien - Hue people (35%), 25% of other localities. After 1975, some households separated from the central area to settle in the mountainous areas because of the densely-populated land and the demand of gardening.

3. The types of residence

The process of formation and development of Da Lat is the formation of the types of residence of the residential groups. With the native minority, there are small communities of from ten to fifty houses; the native people depend on the nature. Along with the communities of the native population, Kinh people helped Da Lat to have a system of population around the Xuan Huong Lake and had a regional variety of styles and characteristics bearing the imprint of different regions of Vietnam. However, in general, the residents of Da Lat had two types of residence such as the urban residence and suburban residence. The distribution of these types of residence was only relativetify;margin:0cm 0cm 6pt">Ward 12 of Da Lat city consists of residence and vice versa, the type of urban residence could be seen in the suburban residence.

3.1 The type of urban residence

Nowadays, Da Lat is the city of Lam Dong province. With the function as the center of tourism, resort, culture - education, research, Da Lat has its significant development. This development has impacted on the urbanization, and created the type of residence which is suitable for the main activities such as: Commerce - service – tourism; industry - handicraft; administration - economy - culture.

When Da Lat was discovered, this city did not have the types of urban residence because at the beginning of twentieth century, this land was still deserted, but it was the first basis of Da Lat to form the type of urban residence in the future. The formation and development of the urban residence of Da Lat depended on the planning of the French and the migration of Kinh as well as other foreigners. After more than 45 years from 1899 to 1945, Da Lat became a real city with its completion of social institutions. And this was also the period of formation and improvement of the type of urban residence of Da Lat. So far, this type of residence has become more obvious in line with the development of the city.

3.2 The type of suburban residence

More than 88% of the residents live in the urban area of Da Lat and 11, 6% live in suburban Da Lat. The suburban residents live on agriculture, forestry and handicraft, of which agriculture plays an important part. The suburban residence of Dalat is the combination of agriculture - forestry with handicraft; the production of agriculture accounts for a comparatively high proportion.

The suburban area of Dalat consists of Xuan Truong, Xuan Tho and Ta Nung communes. In these localities, apart from Ta Nung commune, a majority of Vietnamese live in Xuan Tho and Xuan Truong commune. They are Kinh who migrated from the other areas in different ways such as the workers, soldiers, planned migrants and people who fled the former administration. Most of them were poor farmers. At first, they came here to work in plantations, join the army, work in offices…Then; they set up their own village, clearing the land and doing agriculture to stabilize their life. Therefore, in the suburban residence, the form of village was essential.

In Xuan Truong and Xuan Tho commune today, people still live on agriculture and forestry. In agriculture, the people live by growing vegetables, cultivating industrial plants such as tea, coffee and some fruit trees such as the persimmon, avocado, and so on. In particular, on this plateau, these residents have a new job in cultivating agriculture. It is flower-growing. Meanwhile, rice which used to be the main plant is no longer cultivated. The change of cultivating agriculture is stipulated by many factors such as climate, soil, natural conditions, etc.

Although this is a type of suburban residence, it still has some urban elements, and in contrast, in the urban residence there are still some suburban characteristics.

3.3 The areas of new residents

The suburban residence of Dalat has some ethnic minorities in Mang Lin (Ward 7) and Ta Nung commune; they are stable sedentary communities with typical activities of agriculture and forestry. After 1975, Ta Nung was planned to become an administrative unit of Da Lat city. This was some ethnic minorities’ sedentary commune. Chil people consist of different families in Dung Kno, Da Long, Da Chais, Nthol Ha, etc. Besides, Lach in Mang Lin moved to Ta Nung 2 in August 1978 according the settlement policy. In 1982, the group of Lach which moved to Ta Nung 1 lived in a new community consisting of Sre, Chil, and Lach with the life of cultivating wet rice, growing vegetables and industrial plants (coffee trees). Like the other native groups of Lam Dong province, the residential unit of the minorities of Da Lat is the village. Every village has more than 3 lines (some villages only have a line). Their life depended on hunting and gathering. Then, they cultivated mountainous rice (Chil) and water rice (Sre, Lach). However, the element of occupancy economy was still obvious. Then, the society of the ethnic minorities of Da Lat had changes because they had many opportunities to contact other civilizations. Nowadays, this ethnic group has chosen to live on planting; especially they grow the long-term industrial plants and temperate-climate fruit trees. Besides, the breeding began to develop in the community of ethnic minorities of Da Lat.

After 1975, Da Lat city received many immigrants from the other areas according to the policy of cultivating the new land to develop the economy-culture-society of Tay Nguyen. Simultaneous, local people moved to the other areas to construct the new life according to the migration policy to construct a new economy. Nowadays, the areas of new economy of Da Lat in Tan Hoi and Ta In are transferred to Duc Trong district.

In recent years, according to Da Lat’s policy of administration about stabilizing the life of the staff, workers; and the policy of peripheral development was implemented by specific activities such as building apartments for renting, cultivating the land to supply and sell with low price. Therefore, Da Lat formed some new areas of population such as Dang Thai Than apartment, Dinh I, C5, University of Da Lat city, Phat Ba zone (Ward 8), zone of Bui Thi Xuan school, area of former Telecommunication, the Houses of staff of bank, irrigation, etc.

3.3.1 C5 zone

C5 zone is one of the areas of new population on Nguyen Trung Truc Street at quarter 6, Ward 4; Da Lat. C5 is the name according to the signs of the map. C5 zone also has the other names such as “C5 Dao Duy Tu” or “C5 Trai Gia Binh’’. “C5 Dao Duy Tu” is called together with the name of Dao Duy Tu street and “C5 Trai Gia Binh” is the name of the zone which was reserved for the families of army officers of the former Sai Gon regime.

Before 1975, this zone had 20 families of the army which belonged to the system of former residence. After 1975, the immigration of the population from the other areas caused the quick increase in population. In 1996-1997, C5 zone was planned to become residential zone. In 1999, 4 rows of collective houses were completed and used, each row had 18 households, and the total had 72 households. In 2011, 3 rows of collective houses were constructed. Each row had 24 households, total had 72 households. Along with 2 rows of collective houses, at this time, about 20 other households which did not belong to the plan came to buy the land to construct their houses. At present, C5 zone has 168 households with 672 people, of which the Co Ho ethnic minority has 4 households (12 people). C5 Zone has 90% governmental workers and cadres, 10% farmers and small businessmen.

3.3.2 Lam Vien quarter

Lam Vien quarter lies on Xuan Huong street, district 9, Da Lat city. This quarter is also called with the other names such as Lam Vien hostel- the zone of the families of army officers of Sai Gon or the accommodation of Lam Vien families of Infantry Academy of Da Lat - the zone of officials of Infantry Academy of Da Lat after 1975.

Lam Vien quarter was founded according to the demand of constructing Da Lat Military School from 1965 to 1970. However, in this period, this area was not really a residential area. It had rows of houses for the army officers of Sai Gon regime. In 1976, Da Lat Infantry Academy took over this zone, repaired and distributed to the staff of the Academy. In 1990, this zone also received 11 households of Geological Group 601. From 1985 to 1993, this area was still the accommodation of families of Infantry Academy which was controlled by the staff of Academy. The committee of each quarter was operated by Infantry Academy.

In May in 1994, Da Lat city People’s Committee decided to form Lam Vien quarter in district 9 consisting of 2 collective zones: the collective zone of Infantry Academy and the collective zone of Geological Group 601.

The population of Lam Vien quarter according to the periods: 88 households from 1976 to 1994, 104 households from 1994 to 2000 and 114 households with 501 people from 2000.

The administrative border: the East borders Thai Phien (Ward 12), the West borders Me Linh quarter (Ward 9), the South borders Tung Nguyen Hill and Than Tho Lake, the North borders the residential area in district 12.

The people of Lam Vien quarter live mainly on governmental salary; most of them live on pension. Eleven households grow vegetables and 9 households do small business in this quarter.

The new residential areas have contributed to change Da Lat’s system of residence and influenced the changes of the city’s population.

4. The population of Dalat city

4.1 The population and population density of Dalat city

After more than 100 years of foundation and development, the population of Dalat city has experienced many changes both in terms of quantity and quality.

Before 1975, the population increase didn’t depend on the rate of birth and death. It varied according to the historical and political events, the war or the changes of administrative structures.

At the end of the 19th century, DaLat was still a desolate place and had only some villages of native residents (Lach, Chil). From the beginning of the twentieth century to World War I (1914), 100 Kinh people lived here.

From 1916 to the end of World War II (1945), the population of Dalat increased quickly to 25800 people. The increase in population resulted from the objective and subjective reasons, but the most important reason was the historical event between W.W.I and W.W.II. It caused the changes of the socio-political situation of VN as well as Dalat city.

In 1946, the population in Da Lat decreased to 5200 people because of implementing the policy of Resistance Committee of Lam Vien province, but after that the population increased due to the return of evacuees.

After the restoration of peace, the population was 52000 people in July 1954. There were 73 200 people in 1965, 85 883 people in 1975, and Da lat city had more than 100 000 people in 1982. In 1986, the population Da Lat was 116 052 people out of 659 440 people of the whole Lam Dong province.

According to the investigation of population andustify;margin:0cm 0cm 6pt">At the end of the 19th century, D(Lam Dong had 996 221 people), the total area was 391.06 km2, and the medium density was 410 000 people/km2. Da Lat city was the center of economy, politics, culture, education, science and technology of Lam Dong province, but the distribution of population was not equal between the rural and urban areas (89. 11%) as well as the districts in the city. The central districts such as: District 1 was 11 677 people /1.07km2, District 2 was 17 664 people/1.24 km2 so the population density was very high; meanwhile, the districts which was far from the center had low population density (Ta Nung: 58 people/km2, Xuan Truong: 73 people/km2).

4.2. The population of Da Lat city according to the administrative border

Da Lat city had 12 districts and 3 communes, the rate of urban population was 142 776 people (89%) and the rate of rural population was 17 887 (11%).

Table1: the population in accordance with the administrative border

 

Total

%

City

142,776

89.0

Countryside

17,887

11.0

District 1

11,677

7.3

District 2

17,664

11.0

District 3

13,291

8.3

District 4

14,797

9.2

District 5

10,985

6.8

District 6

12,291

7.7

District 7

District 6

10,442

6.5

District 8

13,580

8.5

District 9

11,957

7.4

District10

13,307

8.3

District11

7,092

4.4

District12

5,693

3.5

Xuân Thọ Commune

5,250

3.3

Xuân Trường Commune

9,392

5.8

Tà Nung Commune

3,245

2.0

Total

160,663

100.0

5. The structure of the population of Da Lat city

5.1. The population according to the household

Da Lat city has 37 283 households including of 33 403 urban households and 3 880 rural households.

Kinh: 36 377 Households (97.5%)

Chinese: 382 households

Co Ho: 340 households

The classification of households:

1 person: 2 398 households

2 people: 4 487 households

3 people: 6 960 households

5 people: 5 914 households

6 people: 3 627 households

8 people: 1 333 households

9 people: 536 households

10 people: 344 households

More than 10 people: 545 households

The average was 4.3 people/household, this rate was lower than Lam Dong province (4.7 people/household), the whole country (4.8 people/household).

According to these figures, households with 3 to 6 people account for 68, 4%, those urban households with more than 7 people account for a high percentage of 12, 7% (4.536 households); especially in the inner city of Da Lat, the number of households with 10 people or more than 10 people was 822 households, meanwhile there was only 77 households with 10 or more than 10 people in the rural area.

5.2. The structure of population according to the national component

According to the investigation of population and houses on April 1st, 1999 of the steering committee of the census of Da Lat city, the structure of population had many changes. In 1989, Da Lat had 18 ethnic groups but it increased to 29 ethnic groups in 1999 including of some foreigners. Kinh made up the highest rate (97%), Co Ho (1. 4%) and Chinese (1. 1%). Although Da Lat is a famous city of tourism, there is not much transfer of international residents; the structure of population according to the citizenship is not considerable.

Table 2: Ethnic groups

align=right class=MsoNormal style="text-align:right;margin:0cm 0cm 0pt">0.0

;padding-top:0cm">

24

Number

Nation

Total

Male

Female

Total

%

Total

%

Total

%

1

Kinh

155 777

97.0

75.908

48.7

79 869

51.3

2

Tày

255

0.2

139

54.5

116

45.5

3

Thái

119

0.1

57

47.9

62

52.1

4

Hoa

1 812

1.1

949

52.4

863

47.6

5

Khơ Me

33

0.0

18

54.5

15

45.5

6

Mường

41

0.0

20

48.8

21

51.2

7

145

0.1

64

44.1

81

55.9

8

Dao

2

0.0

2

100.0

0

0.0

9

Gia Rai

4

0,0

2

50.0

2

50.0

10

Ngái

20

0.0

12

60.0

8

40.0

11

Ê Đê

20

40.0

15

75.0

5

25.0

12

Ba Na

2

0.0

2

100,0

0

0,0

13

Sán Chay

9

0.0

6

66.7

3

33.3

14

Cơ Ho

2 217

1.4

1 090

49.2

1.127

50.8

15

Chăm

60

0.0

31

51.7

29

48.3

16

Sán Dìu

9

0.0

7

77.8

2

22.2

17

Hrê

2

0.0

2

100.0

0

0.0

18

Mnông

34

0.0

20

58.8

14

41.2

19

Raglai

2

0.0

2

100.0

0

0.0

20

Thổ

15

0.0

8

53.3

7

46.7

21

Mạ

43

0.0

31

72.1

12

27.9

22

Co

2

0.0

1

50.0

1

50.0

23

Tà Ôi

1

0,0

1

100.0

0

0.0

1

Chơ Roi

1

0.0

1

100.0

0

0.0

25

Chu Ru

21

0.0

11

52.4

10

47.6

26

Phù Lá

4

0.0

2

50.0

2

50.0

27

Chứt

4

0.0

2

50.0

2

50.0

28

Si La

ht:0cm;background:#ccffff;height:17.15pt;border-top:#f0f0f0;border-right:windowtext 1pt solid;padding-top:0cm">

1

0.0

0

0,0

1

100.0

29

Foreigners

8

0.0

4

50.0

4

50.0

5.3. The structure of Population according to the religious component

Da Lat had many different religions but the Buddhism made up the highest proportion (40.7%), Catholicism (12. 6%), Cao Dai (4.2%).

Table 3: The religious components

Number

Religion

Total

Total

%

1

Buddhism

65 458

40.7

2

Catholicism

20 210

12.6

3

Protestant

2 109

1.3

4

Islam

11

0.0

5

Cao Đai

6 702

4.2

6

Hoa Hao

1

0.0

7

Other religions

28

0.0

8

No religion

66 144

41.2

5.4. The structure of population according to the gender and age

Basing on the distribution of population in accordance with the age group in the tower of age of population in Da Lat, the age under 15 made up 30.8%, more than 60 made up 7.1% in total of population. That thing shows that Da Lat is quite young.

The structure of gender of Da Lat city has the same the structure as whole country, the percentage of women makes up 51% and that of men makes up 49%.

The people in the average age of labor made up the high rate (64, 2%), this structure showed the labor force of the city was quite abundant, especially the age from 16 to 25 made up 22%. However, this force caused the urgent problem to solve the demand of the job and the logical use of local labor force.

On the other hand, more than 7% elderly people showed an increase in life expectancy of the people in comparison with 1989 (4.7%). In the future, the age of people will increase because of the socio-economic, scientific achievements the country as well as of the locality.

Table 4: The structure of population according to the age group

Number

Age group

Total

Male

Female

Total

;padding-top:0cm" rowspan=2>

%

Total

%

1

0 - 4 years old

14 334

7 292

4.5

7 042

4.4

2

5 – 9 years old

16 515

8 487

5.3

8 028

5.0

3

10 – 14years old

15 234

7 795

4.9

7 439

4.6

4

15 - 19 years old

16 510

7 937

4. 9

8 573

5.3

5

20 - 24 years old

19 130

9 438

5. 9

9 692

6.0

6

25 - 29 years old

15 952

8 018

5.0

7 934

4.9

7

30 - 34 years old

14 789

7 529

4.7

7 260

4.5

8

35 - 39 years old

12 355

5 958

3.7

6 397

4.0

9

40 - 44 years old

10 228

4 829

3.0

5 399

3.4

10

45 - 49years old

6 675

3 144

2.0

3 531

2.2

11

50 - 54years old

4 128

1 855

1.2

2 273

1.4

12

3 352

1 459

0.9

1 893

1.2

13

60 - 64years old

3 334

1 403

0.9

1 931

1.2

14

65 - 69years old

2 826

1 271

0.8

1 555

1.0

15

70 - 74years old

2 180

871

0.5

1 309

0.8

16

75 - 79 years old

1 577

576

0.4

1 001

0.6

576

17

80 - 84 years old

851

306

0.2

545

0.3

18

Over85years old

693

239

0.1

454

0.3

5.5. The marital status

Until April 1st 1999, the age group of more than 13 years old in Da Lat city was 49 700 people. 41.2% (21.5 % male; 19.6% female) never got married and 52.2% were married (women: 32 351 people and men : 30 710 people).

About the marital status between men and women, the result of the investigation showed the difference between the age groups: from 15 to 29, there were more married women than men; the marital age of urban people was later than the rural one from the age of 30 to 45, accounting for more than 40% of both men and women. There was 5 671 widowed women (4.7%), 817 widowed men (0. 7%). The rate of widows becomes greater than that of widowers when they get older because the life expectancy of women is higher than men.

5.6. The rate of birth-death and the natural increase

The trend of having fewer children in a family becomes more obvious. In 1990, the rate of birth was 2.26%. In 1991, there was 2.31​% and in 2007, it was only 1.73%.

The death rate of the population in DaLat has clearly decreased over the last ten years. The rate of death was 0. 47% in 1991(580.000 people/123.333 people). And the rate was 0. 36% in 2007. Similarly, the rate of natural increase of population was more and more decreasing: from 1991 (1. 84%) to 2007 (1. 37%).

5.7. The educational level

Table 5: The educational level

The educational level

Total

City

Countryside

Total

%

Total

%

Total

%

Illiteracy

7 382

5.0

6 068

4.7

1 314

8.3

Primary school

34 942

23.9

29 117

22.3

5 825

36.6

Junior secondary school

47 885

32.7

41 612

31.9

6 273

39.5

High school

38 855

26.6

36 527

28.0

2 328

14.6

Junior college

3 327

2.3

3 255

2.5

72

0.5

University

13 650

9.3

13 571

10.4

79

0.5

Post-graduate

287

0.2

287

0.2

0

0.0

Total

146 328

100.0

130.437

100.0

15891

100.0

 

According to the statistics on April 1st 1999, the rate of the literate people of Da Lat city made up 95% of population. This rate continued to increase in both rural and urban areas, especially in the young people. The illiterate people only focused on the age of more than 50 years old.

The level of education consisted of: Primary schools: 23, 9%, Junior Secondary schools: 32, 7%; High schools: 26, 6%; Junior colleges: 2, 3%; Universities: 9, 3%; Postgraduates: 0, 2%. There were 17 264 people in the level of junior colleges and university graduates. Among them, 287 people (64 women) were of the university level.

5.8. The population, profession and professional, technological skills

An important criterion of population was the indicator of economic activity. The result of the 1999 census showed 2 kinds of population: the population with economic activities and the population with non-economic activities. The former consisted of people who had stable and temporary jobs, had the need of employment, or were in the age of labor but unemployed; the latter consisted of the people who were going to school, did housework, and did not have capacity to work and the other conditions.

The population of Da lat city who were more than 13 years old and were employed (60.6%), doing housework (6.3%), attending school (21.4%), without capacity to work (7.6%), unemployment (2.3%), other conditions (1.8%).

Table 6: The population of Da Lat city According to their working capacity

 

 

Total

Female

Male

Total

%

Total

%

Total

%

employed

73 162

6.6

34 689

55.2

38 473

66.4

housework

7 573

6.3

7 417

11.8

156

0.3

Attending school

25 854

21.4

13 179

21.0

12 675

21.9

Without working capacity

9 168

7.6

5 390

8.6

3 778

6.5

Without the need of employment

2 168

1.8

997

1.6

1 171

2.0

With the need of profession

2 805

2.3

1 139

1.8

1 666

2.9

Total

120 730

100.0

62 811

100.0

57 919

100.0

The distribution of labor in the economy in Da Lat shows the agriculture dominates and concentrates much labor force, accounting for 38. 3%. The processing industry, trade and service also have many contributions to developing the local economy.

However, there are big gaps between the economic sectors such as the industry and the agriculture; the industry has not developed in Da Lat, the strength of tourism and the other local potentialities should be enhanced to satisfy the demands of the city.

The changes from the centralized economy to the market economy as well as the feature of tourism and mountainous resort caused some dramatic changes in the distribution of labor. The private components of economy are becoming popular, accounting for a high proportion (77. 3%), with diversified activities in many fields. The state economy makes up the second proportion of 17. 3%. The foreign business which is forming and developing in Da Lat consists of 1 042 people (making up 1.4% of the city labor).

Table 7: The labor of Da Lat according the economic sectors

align=right class=MsoNormal style="text-align:right;margin:0cm 0cm 0pt">0.5

Number

National economic sectors

Total

Total

%

1

Agriculture

28 032

38.3

2

Forestry

194

0.3

3

Fishery

7

0.0

4

Mining industry

220

0.3

5

Processing industry

9 602

13.1

6

Electricity, water

512

0.7

7

Construction

3 632

5.0

8

Trade

10 701

14.6

9

Hotel, restaurant

4 406

6.0

10

Transport and telecommunications

5 068

6.9

11

Financial Credit

363

6.9

12

Science and technology

312

0.4

13

Other services

2 543

3.5

14

State management and national security

2 035

2.8

15

Education and training

3 001

4.1

16

Health

968

1.3

17

Culture and sport

564

0.8

18

Party and organizations

1 002

1.4

Total

73 162

100.0

The situation of labor which is divided according to the professional components between the trained and untrained people has a big difference: the untrained people make up 86. 3% of the total local labors.

The trained people of the city were 16 531 people. Among them, technological workers with the elementary and intermediate levels make up 7.7%; those with junior colleges and indowtext 1pt solid;border-left:#f0f0f0;padding-bottom:0cm;p.2%.

Table 8: The labor of Da Lat according to the economic components

The components of economy

Total

Total

%

State

12 678

17.3

Collective

928

1.3

Private

1 407

1.9

Individual

56 532

77.3

Mixture

575

0.8

Foreign

1 042

1.4

Total

73 162

100.0

 

Table 9: The labor of Da Lat according to the professional level

Total

.45pt;border-top:#f0f0f0;border-right:windowtext 1pt solid;padding-top:0cm">

21

Number

Professional level

Total

Female

Male

%

Total

%

Total

%

1

Without professional training

104 199

86.30

55 985

89.1

48 214

83.2

2

Elementary technological training

5 314

4.40

1 271

2.0

4 043

7.0

3

Intermediate technological training

4 029

3.34

2 458

3.9

1 571

2.7

4

Junior college

1 443

1.20

1 055

1.7

388

0.7

5

University degree

5 483

4.54

1 983

3.2

3 500

6.0

6

Master

200

0.17

54

0.1

146

0.3

7

Doctor

41

0.03

3

0.0

38

0.1

8

Doctor of Philosophy

38

0.02

2

0.0

19

0.0

 

Total

120 730

100

62 811

100

57 919

100

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